Redshift Transformation

AWS Redshift is based on PostgreSQL 8.0 where AWS added powerful scaling and made it available in cloud. Transformations run on your own dedicated cluster in Keboola.

  • If your source data is on Redshift, there is no data transfer.
  • Redshift is a columnar database – no more indexing, nest JOINs without worries.
  • Redshift is not very friendly when it comes to data types, for instance, invalid characters.
  • If a query gets slow, dive into sort keys, distribution styles and column compression.


Redshift in Keboola does not support functions or stored procedures.

There are basic constrains set to keep your Redshift cluster healthy. By upgrading your Redshift cluster to a larger size, these limits can be increased.

  • Redshift queries are limited to 3,600 seconds by default.
  • All Redshift queries are performed on the cluster assigned to your project. By default, there is a limit of five concurrent queries. Additional queries will be queued.
  • Queries containing comments longer than 8,192 characters will segfault.

Best Practices

Quoting – Use double quotes (") to encapsulate table and column names.

Case sensitivity – Redshift is case insensitive and stores all column and table names in lower case. However, Storage is case sensitive (be careful when migrating transformations to Redshift, letter case could cause problems in the output mapping).

COPY Options – The default COPY command looks like this:

COPY "table FROM 's3://bucket/file'
CREDENTIALS 'aws_access_key_id=key;aws_secret_access_key=secret'"

If you do not specify any COPY options in the input mapping, NULL AS 'NULL' ACCEPTANYDATE TRUNCATECOLUMNS will be used as default. Specifying the COPY options will overwrite the defaults.